WHY BLOOD DONATION?
Less than 1% of South Africans are active blood donors. A unit of blood only lasts 42 days after donation and, for this reason, it is important for blood donors to donate regularly. Donors can give blood as often as every eight weeks.
Every unit of blood can save a minimum of three lives as blood is separated into red blood cells, plasma and platelets.
SANBS aims to collect 3000 units of blood per day to ensure a safe and sufficient blood supply in the health care system.
The whole process takes about 15 – 20 minutes if you are already a registered blood donor, so the donors could return to work quickly. The personnel of the SANBS were also friendly, caring and efficient which made it easier for the first-time donors.
Mental illness in children: Know the signs
Children can develop the same mental health conditions as adults, but their symptoms may be different. Know what to watch for and how you can help.
Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to identify. As a result, many children who could benefit from treatment don’t get the help they need. Understand how to recognize warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your child.
What is a mental illness?
Mental health is the overall wellness of how you think, regulate your feelings and behave. A mental illness, or mental health disorder, is defined as patterns or changes in thinking, feeling or behaving that cause distress or disrupt a person’s ability to function.
Mental health disorders in children are generally defined as delays or disruptions in developing age-appropriate thinking, behaviors, social skills or regulation of emotions. These problems are distressing to children and disrupt their ability to function well at home, in school or in other social situations.
Barriers to treating childhood mental health disorders
It can be difficult to understand mental health disorders in children because normal childhood development is a process that involves change. Additionally, the symptoms of a disorder may differ depending on a child’s age, and children may not be able to explain how they feel or why they are behaving a certain way.
Concerns about the stigma associated with mental illness, the use of medications, and the cost or logistical challenges of treatment might also prevent parents from seeking care for a child who has a suspected mental illness.
Common disorders among children
Mental health disorders in children — or developmental disorders that are addressed by mental health professionals — may include the following:
What are the warning signs of mental illness in children?
Warning signs that your child may have a mental health disorder include:
What should I do if I suspect my child has a mental health condition?
If you’re concerned about your child’s mental health, consult your child’s doctor. Describe the behaviors that concern you. Talk to your child’s teacher, close friends, relatives or other caregivers to see if they’ve noticed changes in your child’s behavior. Share this information with your child’s doctor.
How do health care professionals diagnose mental illness in children?
Mental health conditions in children are diagnosed and treated based on signs and symptoms and how the condition affects a child’s daily life. To make a diagnosis, your child’s doctor might recommend that your child be evaluated by a specialist, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, clinical social worker, psychiatric nurse or other mental health care professional. The evaluation might include:
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), a guide published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides criteria for making a diagnosis based on the nature, duration and impact of signs and symptoms. Another commonly used diagnostic guideline is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) from the World Health Organization.
Diagnosing mental illness in children can take time because young children may have trouble understanding or expressing their feelings, and normal development varies. The doctor may change or refine a diagnosis over time.
How is mental illness in children treated?
Common treatment options for children who have mental health conditions include:
How can I help my child cope with mental illness?
You will play an important role in supporting your child’s treatment plan. To care for yourself and your child:
Protect your child from certain cancers later in life with HPV vaccine at age 11–12 years.
When should my child get HPV vaccine?
11–12 years (can start at age 9)
6–12 months after the first dose
Children ages 11–12 years should get two doses of HPV vaccine, given 6 to 12 months apart. HPV vaccines can be given starting at age 9 years.
Children who start the HPV vaccine series on or after their 15th birthday need three doses, given over 6 months. If your teen isn’t vaccinated yet, talk to their doctor about doing so as soon as possible.
Early protection works best. That’s why HPV vaccine is recommended earlier rather than later. It protects your child long before they ever have contact with the virus.
Teens and young adults should be vaccinated too. Everyone through age 26 years should get HPV vaccine if they were not fully vaccinated already.
HPV vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years.
HPV vaccination is preventing cancer-causing infections and precancers. HPV infections and cervical precancers (abnormal cells on the cervix that can lead to cancer) have dropped since 2006, when HPV vaccines were first used in the United States.
HPV vaccination is very safe.
Over 15 years of monitoring have shown that HPV vaccines are very safe and effective. Like all vaccines, scientists continue to monitor HPV vaccines to ensure they are safe and effective.
Possible side effects
Like any vaccine or medicine, HPV vaccines can have side effects. The most common side effects are mild and include:
The benefits of HPV vaccination far outweigh the risk of potential side effects.
To prevent fainting and injuries from fainting, adolescents should be seated or lying down during vaccination and for 15 minutes after getting the shot.
Reasons to Get HPV Vaccine
All children ages 11–12-years should get HPV vaccine to protect against cancers caused by HPV infections.
85% of people will get an HPV infection in their lifetime.
Almost every unvaccinated person who is sexually active will get HPV at some time in their life. About 13 million Americans, including teens, become infected with HPV each year. Most HPV infections will go away on their own. But infections that don’t go away can cause certain types of cancer. HPV vaccination works.
HPV infections, genital warts, and cervical precancers (abnormal cells on the cervix that can lead to cancer) have dropped since the vaccine has been in use in the United States.
HPV vaccination is cancer prevention.
HPV is estimated to cause nearly 36,000 cases of cancer in men and women every year in the United States. HPV vaccination can prevent 33,000 of these cancers by preventing the infections that cause them. That’s the same as the average attendance for a baseball game.
Preventing cancer is better than treating it.
HPV can cause several kinds of cancer. Only cervical cancer can be detected early a screening test. The other cancers caused by HPV may not be detected until they are more serious. HPV vaccination prevents infections that cause these cancers.
Early protection works best.
Most children only need two doses of HPV vaccine when vaccinated before age 15 years. You can take advantage of any visit to your child’s doctor to get recommended vaccines for your child:
HPV vaccination provides safe, effective, and long-lasting protection.
There is no doubt that South Africa has made significant progress towards achieving gender equality since 1956, when 20 000 women marched to the Union Buildings on 9 August in protest against the extension of Pass Laws to women. Activists rebelled against a patriarchal system designed to control women and reduce them to submissive beings at the mercy of men.
As part of the global movement towards achieving gender equality by 2030, South Africa celebrates this year’s Women’s month under the theme: “Generation Equality – Realizing Women’s Rights for an Equal Future”.
Today, South Africa’s progressive laws have seen more women serving in high-ranking positions in government than ever before. Access to education by young girls and women has improved substantially over time. Recent statistics1 depict a balance in gender parity ratios (GPR) amongst those who are functionally literate from 0,95 in 2002, to 0,99 (zero – no gender equality to one – full gender equality) in 2019, indicating that more women are now literate.
In SA and globally, one of the biggest challenges facing women is educational inequality. Access to education has played a pivotal role in ensuring that women have progressed to higher education levels. According to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2019 country report, GPR for female participation in tertiary education was 1,39 during 2016, underpinning the fact that significant strides have been achieved in ensuring universal access to education for everyone.
For the full article please visit: http://www.statssa.gov.za/?p=14559
What Is Hepatitis?
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It may be caused by drugs, alcohol use, or certain medical conditions. But in most cases, it’s caused by a virus. This is known as viral hepatitis, and the most common forms are hepatitis A, B, and C.
Sometimes there are no symptoms of hepatitis in the first weeks after infection — the acute phase. But when they happen, the symptoms of types A, B, and C may include fatigue, nausea, poor appetite, belly pain, a mild fever, or yellow skin or eyes (jaundice). When hepatitis B and C become chronic, they may cause no symptoms for years. By the time there are any warning signs, the liver may already be damaged.
How Is Hepatitis Diagnosed?
Chronic hepatitis can quietly attack the liver for years without causing any symptoms. Unless the infection is diagnosed, monitored, and treated, many of these people will eventually have serious liver damage. Fortunately, blood tests can determine whether you have viral hepatitis, and if so, which kind.
Hepatitis A: What Happens
Hepatitis A is highly contagious and can spread from person to person in many different settings. It typically causes only a mild illness, and many people who are infected may never realize they’re sick at all. The virus almost always goes away on its own and does not cause long-term liver damage.
Hepatitis B: What Happens
Many adults who get hepatitis B have mild symptoms for a short time and then get better on their own. But some people are not able to clear the virus from the body, which causes a long-term infection. Nearly 90% of infants who get the virus will carry it for life. Over time, hepatitis B can lead to serious problems, such as liver damage, liver failure, and liver cancer.
Hepatitis C: What Happens
About 25% of people who get hepatitis C defeat the virus after a short-term infection. The rest will carry the virus in their body for the long term. Chronic hepatitis C can cause very serious complications, including liver failure and liver cancer. There are effective treatments for the virus, though.
It spreads through infected blood. In the U.S., sharing needles or other items used to inject drugs is the most common cause of infection. Getting a tattoo or body piercing with an infected needle is another means of exposure. A mother may pass the virus to their child at birth. In rare cases, unprotected sex spreads hepatitis C, but the risk appears small. Having multiple sex partners, HIV, or rough sex seems to raise risk for spreading hepatitis C.
People who have injected illegal drugs at any time, even one time, many years ago, could be walking around with chronic hepatitis C. Because there are often no symptoms, many former drug users may not realize they have the infection. People who received a blood transfusion before 1992 also have a higher risk. Before that year, donated blood was not screened for the hepatitis C virus.
Who Should Be Tested for Hepatitis?
Testing is important for anyone with the risk factors we’ve mentioned, particularly injected drug users and people who have had multiple sex partners. Health advocates are also urging people of Asian heritage to get tested. Stanford University’s Asian Liver Center estimates that 1 in 10 Asians living in the U.S. has chronic hepatitis B. Many of them have probably had the virus since birth.
Also, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that health care providers offer a one-time hepatitis C screening for anyone born between 1945 and 1965.
What if You Test Positive?
If a test says you have viral hepatitis, you can take steps to protect the ones you love. For hepatitis A, wash hands frequently. For hepatitis B and C, avoid sharing nail clippers, razors, or toothbrushes. Hepatitis B, and sometimes hepatitis C, can be passed through sexual contact. Make sure everyone in your household gets the hepatitis B vaccine. An important step is to see a specialist to discuss treatment options.
For more information contact your General practitioner.
World Heart Rhythm Week 2021 June 7 – June 13
World Heart Rhythm Week is an annual event which will run between the 7th – 13th June in 2021. This is organised by the Arrhythmia Alliance, a coalition of patients, charities and professionals who work together to promote effective diagnosis and treatment of heart arrhythmia (a disorder affecting the rhythm of the heartbeat). The aim of World Heart Rhythm Week is to raise awareness of the symptoms of heart arrhythmia in both the general public and medical profession.
During the week, the Arrhythmia Alliance is asking its supporters to help spread the word by sharing information on social media, displaying information in public places, hosting awareness activities or simply making a donation.
Throughout the community, on these dates, there will be extra information about heart arrhythmia on display in GP surgeries, schools and community centres. There will also be activities such as the Pulse Check Challenge at health centres and community groups and fundraising events such as quiz nights, cake sales and coffee mornings.
Further information about Heart Arrhythmia and World Heart Rhythm Week can be found at www.arrhythmiaalliance.org.uk
Heart rhythm problems (heart arrhythmias) occur when the electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats do not work properly, causing your heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly.
Heart arrhythmias may feel like a fluttering or racing heart and may be harmless. However, some heart arrhythmias may cause bothersome — sometimes even life-threatening — signs and symptoms.
Heart arrhythmia treatment can often control or eliminate fast, slow or irregular heartbeats. In addition, because troublesome heart arrhythmias are often made worse — or are even caused — by a weak or damaged heart, you may be able to reduce your arrhythmia risk by adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle.
What is a normal heartbeat?
Your heart is made up of four chambers — two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). Your heart rhythm is normally controlled by a natural pacemaker (sinus node) located in the right atrium. The sinus node produces electrical impulses that normally start each heartbeat. These impulses cause the atria muscles to contract and pump blood into the ventricles.
The electrical impulses then arrive at a cluster of cells called the atrioventricular (AV) node. The AV node slows down the electrical signal before sending it to the ventricles. This slight delay allows the ventricles to fill with blood. When electrical impulses reach the muscles of the ventricles, they contract, causing them to pump blood either to the lungs or to the rest of the body.
In a healthy heart, this process usually goes smoothly, resulting in a normal resting heart rate of 60 to 100 beats a minute.